Status Epilepticus: Its Clinical Features and Treatment in Children and Adults

Status Epilepticus: Its Clinical Features and Treatment in Children and Adults

Paperback: 404 pages
Publisher: Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (November 2, 2006)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0521031141
ISBN-13: 978-0521031141

Status epilepticus, the maximum expression of epilepsy, is a distinctive condition, much more than simple a severe version of ordinary epilepsy. This is the definitive reference work on the subject, taking a modern look at the clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment of status, in both children and adults.

All forms of status are considered, including the classical convulsive (grand mal) type, the less well-understood yet common and fascinating nonconvulsive variants, boundary syndromes and also pseudostatus epilepticus. The history, clinical aspects, treatment and outcome of each form are explored in their scientific content, accounting for research findings in the fields of epidemiology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neuropathology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology. Received ideas are examined critically, the existing schemes of classification revised, and current practice is challenged where it seems inadequate.

Treatment is dealt with in depth, and schemes of management outlined for both convulsive and nonconvulsive forms. For each drug used in status, a systematic review is given of the pharmacology, clinical and toxic effects in status, administration and dosage. Summary tables outline key clinical information.

The text is based on extensive clinical experience of the author, and a practical and theoretical perspective is taken throughout. The world literature is expertly marshalled to provide a comprehensive review of the topic in all its aspects. The book is therefore both a reference work and a practical guide, useful for a wide range of clinicians, neurologists, psychiatrists, paediatricians, other specialists and generalists, and all those dealing with emergency and intensive care medicine.

CONTENTS

1: The concept of status epilepticus and its history
Pre-history of status epilepticus
Origins of status epilepticus
Classical descriptions of status epilepticus
Era of electroencephalography
Les Colloques de Marseille, and the definition and classification of status epilepticus

2: Definition, classification and frequency of status epilepticus
Definition of status epilepticus
Classification of status epilepticus
A new classification of status epilepticus
Frequency of status epilepticus
Population estimates of the frequency of status epilepticus

3: Clinical forms of status epilepticus
Status epilepticus confined to the neonatal period
Neonatal status epilepticus
Status epilepticus in neonatal epilepsy syndromes
Status epilepticus confined largely to infancy and childhood
Infantile spasm (West syndrome)
Febrile status epilepticus
Status in childhood myoclonic epilepsies
Status epilepticus in the benign childhood epilepsy syndromes
Electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep
Syndrome of acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner or Worster-Drought syndrome)
Status epilepticus occurring in late childhood and adult life
Tonic-clonic status epilepticus
Absence status epilepticus
Epilepsia partialis continua
Myoclonic status epilepticus in coma
Specific forms of status epilepticus in mental retardation
Other syndromes of myoclonic status epilepticus
Nonconvulsive simple partial status epilepticus
Complex partial status epilepticus
Boundary conditions
Status epilepticus confined to adult life
De novo absence status epilepticus of late onset
Pseudostatus epilepticus

4: Neurophysiology, neuropathology and neurochemistry of status epilepticus
Experimental neurophysiology of status epilepticus
Neuropathology of status epilepticus
Neurochemistry of status epilepticus

5: Emergency treatment of status epilepticus
General measures
Antiepileptic drug pharmacokinetics in status epilepticus
Drug absorption
Drug distribution, metabolism and excretion
Blood levels and interactions
Ideal antiepileptic drug in tonic-clonic status epilepticus
Stages of drug treatment in tonic-clonic status epilepticus, and drug treatment regimens
Failure of antiepileptic drug treatment
Antiepileptic drugs used in status epilepticus
Premonitory status epilepticus
Diazepam
Midazolam
Paraldehyde
Early and established status epilepticus
Chlormethiazole (chlomethiazole)
Clonazepam
Lignocaine (lidocaine)
Lorazepam
Phenytoin
Phenobarbitone (phenobarbital)
Stage of refractory status epilepticus: general anaesthesia
Thiopentone sodium (thiopental sodium)
Pentobarbitone sodium (pentobarbital sodium)
Isoflurane
Etomidate
Propofol
Other drugs used in status epilepticus
Emergency treatment of other forms of status epilepticus
Prologue to therapy in status epilepticus

6: Prognosis and outcome of status epilepticus
Outcome of tonic-clonic status epilepticus (including generic studies of status epilepticus)
Outcome of other syndromes of status epilepticus

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